Share of R&D Expenditures in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has become 1.06%
Gross domestic R&D expenditure increased by 7 billion 420 million TL in 2019 compared to the previous year and reached 45 billion 954 million TL. While the ratio of gross domestic R&D expenditure in the gross domestic product (GDP) was 1.03% in 2018, it reached 1.06% in 2019.
The Highest R&D Expenditure Was Made by Private Sector
While the share of private sector in R&D expenditures was 60.4% in 2018, it increased to 64.2% in 2019. The share of private sector in R&D expenditures was followed by higher education with 29.2%. The share of public R&D expenditures by government in total R&D expenditures turned out to be 6.6%.
Private Sector Finances 56.3% of Turkey’s R&D Expenditure
Private sector ranked first in R&D financing with 56.3%, which was 53.6% in 2018. In 2019, the private sector was followed by public government with 29.4%, higher education with 12.8%, and foreign funds with 1.5%.
Share of Enterprises Conducting R&D Activities in Manufacturing Sector Exports have reached 50.5%
In the manufacturing sector, 50.5% of the total exports in 2019 was made by enterprises conducting R&D activities. This figure was 46.1% in 2018.
While the Number of FTE R&D Personnel Increased by 6.2% in General Total, it increased by 10.1 in Private Sector Compared to the Previous Year.
In terms of full-time equivalence (FTE), a total of 182 thousand 847 people were hired as R&D personnel in 2019. The increase in the number of FTE R&D personnel turned out to be 6.2% compared to the previous year.
The share of the private sector in total R&D personnel, which was 60.6% in 2018, increased to 62.9% in 2019.
The number of FTE R&D personnel of the private sector increased by 10.1% compared to the previous year and reached 114 thousand 931.
In terms of FTE, 32.3 percent of the total R&D personnel was hired by higher education and 4.9 percent by general government sector, which also includes non-profit organizations.
The ratio of researchers with doctorate or higher level education turned out to be 32.8% in the total number of R&D personnel, and 20% in the FTE based employment.
Detailed information is available on the web site of Turkish Statistical Institute
Updated charts and tables regarding the R&D data of 2019 are available on the web page of TÜBİTAK Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Department.